Relación del escepticismo con la filosofía (Clasicos del pensamiento) (Spanish Edition)

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Unfortunately, for many reasons Socrates is a problematic figure. He wrote nothing and there are disagreements concerning what the way of life he taught actually was. In examining the nature of ancient philosophy it is easier to look at the schools that came after him than it is to look at Socrates himself.

Although our knowledge of them is also far from perfect, we have a much better sense of what the schools taught and believed. It may also be noted that the development of philosophical counselling has occurred at the same time as a renewal of interest in the schools, and in particular Stoicism.

When people seek for philosophical guidance in life, ancient philosophy often seems more attractive than what came later. Although they can obviously be connected, problemsolving rather than life-reorientation is what is sought. Because of this, and perhaps understandably, there is a widespread tendency to misuse the surviving texts from the world of ancient philosophy. To select items from them to suit the occasion or, what is even worse, to regard them simply as some kind of thesaurus of useful quotations, is to seriously misrepresent the teachings of the schools.

I will give one extreme example, taken from a book so bad that I will not mention its name. It included a quotation from Epicurus concerning pleasure, but failed to put the quotation in any kind of context. Epicureanism had a very distinctive understanding of pleasure and defined it as the absence of pain. Without knowing this, it is impossible to understand the quotation correctly as an expression of the Epicurean philosophical outlook.

However helpful someone might have found the quotation to be, presented outside its proper context it conveyed nothing at all about Epicureanism. As I said, this is an extreme example, but it is one thing to be extreme and another to be rare.

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From a therapeutic point of view there is absolutely nothing wrong with this. However, the fact that a quotation comes from a philosopher does not make every use of that quotation philosophical.

But that does not make him a philosopher any more than someone who quotes from the books of Isaiah or Jeremiah becomes a prophet by doing so. If a style or method of counselling brings benefits to clients, it is to be welcomed. However, if it calls itself philosophical, it should be true to philosophy in general, and if it claims to make use of specific philosophies, then it should be true to them in particular. I hope by now it is obvious now why I think Antiphon was the first philosophical counsellor and why I believe that philosophical counselling may owe a significant debt to the sophists of the ancient world.

I hope this essay will encourage philosophical counsellors to take an interest in him. Bibliography There is very little about Antiphon to be found anywhere in any language. All the fragments of text attributed to him as well as ancient writings about him can be found translated into English in: Sprague, Rosemary Kent, The Older Sophists, Indianapolis, Hackett, pp.

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This book is a reprint of the edition published by the University of South Carolina Press in In Italian there is: Bignone, E. The sophists are discussed collectively in: Kerferd, G. Italian translation, Bologna, Il Mulino, We need only to look to the dialogue Parmenides to confirm that Plato himself had the highest estimation of Parmenides.

And Plato refers to Parmenides elsewhere too. I was together with him when I still was very young, but he was old already, and he showed a very rare and admiring depth of mind. I am afraid, then, that partly we will not understand what he said, partly we will understand far less With the pure enthusiasm of thinking that grasps itself for the first time and in its absolute abstraction, it declares: only being is, and nothing is nothing at all. Here strats Parmenides, the thinker who has purified and raised his own understanding, and therefore the understanding of the time following, to the pure thought of being as such, and has thereby given rise to the basis of science.

What is the first in science had to reveal itself as the first in history. And the Eleatic One or Being has to be seen as the first in the knowledge of thinking. Popper identifies the spatio-temporal physical world as the first world distinct from the second world, that of mental experience, as well as from the third, that of pure theoretical objectivity.

Theoretical propositions may be restricted or even found to be invalid when tested against experience, but once formed they claim both universality and necessity. It is this that makes such propositions scientific. This was recognised by Popper, and among the Greek philosophers, it was first recognised by Parmenides who drew from it a series of most interesting and fundamental propositions.

Before saying more about what is involved here, I want to tell you frankly why the reading of Parmenides seems to be so important to me. The first, that it is, and that it is impossible for it not to be, is the way of persuasion, for truth is its companion. The other, that it is not, and that it must necessarily not be, that, I tell you, is a path wholly unthinkable. For you cannot know what is not that is impossible nor point it out. The inquiry into nature is a human practice, undertaken within the human life-world, but, no matter how non-being is here understood, the decision for being is the decision for truth.

Translation here and below based on existing translations by Randall, Gallop and others. Nor was it once, nor will it be, since it is, now, all together, one and continuous … Nor is it divisible, since it all alike is. Nor is there any more of it here than there, to hinder it from holding together, nor any less of it, but it is all a plenum, full of what-is…Moreover, unchanging in the limits of great bonds, it is without beginning or end, since coming-to-be and perishing were banished far away, and true conviction drove them out.